Pressurized Intra-Peritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC)


About Pipac

Pressurized Intra-Peritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a laparoscopic procedure of administration of aerosolized chemotherapy within the abdominal cavity, where the laws of physics allow a high tissue concentration of chemotherapy in the cancer cells, but without the usual side effects and toxicity of injected chemotherapy. With the expertise of some of the best oncologists in India, PIPAC has emerged as an innovative approach to cancer treatment.

Pressurized Intra-Thoracic Aerosol Chemotherapy (PITAC) is the same procedure when used for chest for cancers that have spread to pleura.

Dr. Sandeep Nayak


MBBS, MRCSEd, DNB (Gen Surg),
MNAMS (Gen Surg), DNB (Surgical Oncology),

Fellowship in Laparoscopic and Robotic Onco-Surgery.
Dr Nayak is one of the leading senior Surgical Oncologists (cancer surgeon) of Bangalore. He is one of the pioneers of Laproscopic (laparoscopic) cancer treatment (surgery). He is the Director of Surgical Oncology at Fortis Hospital, Bangalore.

Read More



    MBBS from KIMS, Bangalore
    MS from NHLMMC, Ahmedabad
    M.Ch Surgical oncology from Tata Memorial hospital,Mumbai


    Assistant Professor in RRMCH, Bangalore
dr shreekant


is a surgical oncologist with interest in minimal access cancer surgeries. He finished his MCh (Surgical Oncology) training from Vydehi medical College and later did fellowship in minimal access and robotic Surgical Oncology. He has special interest in Breast cancers, Minimal access surgical oncology and Cytoreduction and HIPEC procedures. He has won award for best surgical video presentation in National conference and Best Abstract presentation in International conference, Korea.

PIPAC and PITAC are likely to improve their quality of life with very few side effects.This procedure is repeated at least 3 times at a gap of 4-6 weeks with least side effects.Though PIPAC represents a new treatment modality, it is not an experimental treatment. More than thousand applications have been performed in few specialized centers in Europe with promising results. A good response to treatment, as well as slowing-down of tumor progression has been repeatedly demonstrated, which in consequence might improve survival. Fortunately, only few side effects have been seen, thanks to the minimally-invasive (laparoscopic) surgical approach, and the risks of the surgical intervention are altogether

What is peritoneum?

The peritoneum lines the internal surface of the abdominopelvic wall (parietal peritoneum) and other organs inside the abdomen (visceral peritoneum).

What is Pleura?

The pleura lines the internal surface of the chest wall (parietal pleura) and lung (visceral pleura).
Mesothelioma originates in this layer. Like peritoneum many cancers can spread to this layer from other organs.

The cancers can originate in this layer:

  • Primary peritoneal cancer
  • Mesothelioma

Spread to this layer:

  • Ovary
  • Colon and rectum
  • Stomach
  • Many other

When Is Pipac And Pitac Performed?

Peritoneal carcinomatosis represents end stage disease in many types of cancer when the cancer has spread in the peritoneum and no curative treatment (like HIPEC) is possible for various reasons. Majority of patients with this will die from their disease within six months. Chemotherapy may prolong survival in selected patients, but poor performance status, low response rates, and toxic side effects of chemotherapy have led to conservative treatment strategies in these patients. The same happens when cancer is spread (metastasis) to chest cavity (pleura) as well. Thanks to recent research efforts, we dispose nowadays of an efficient alternative therapy with less surgical risks and only little impact on quality of life.

Patients with Peritoneal or pleural carcinomatosis, who are in good condition and with a remaining life expectancy of more than a few months, may still have an unmet need for additional treatment in order to be able to perform with a high quality of life for as long as possible. These are the patients who may benefit from PIPAC or PITAC. PIPAC and PITAC are likely to improve their quality of life with very few side effects.

Description Of The Procedure:

PIPAC can only be applied by laparoscopy. The fumigation as a gas allows a homogeneous dispersion of chemotherapy within the peritoneal cavity or pleural cavity. The administration of chemotherapy under pressure increases the local tissue penetration of the chemotherapy allowing high concentrations in cancer cells. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia. Two trocars or tubes are inserted via two small incisions (5-12 mm) into the peritoneal cavity. Carbon dioxide insufflation grants the necessary workspace. First, small tissue samples of the tumor knots are retrieved (biopsy). Then, the chemotherapy is dispersed as pressurized aerosol inside the abdominal or chest cavity for 30 minutes. At the end of the procedure, the pressure is released and the gas aspirated, and the skin incisions are closed.

The whole procedure lasts about 90 minutes. The length of hospital stay is usually 3-4 days. Three applications of PIPAC or PITAC are recommended within 3 months with a delay between the applications: 4-6 weeks. Alternatively, this can be interspersed with chemotherapy between every second cycle. All patients are observed closely during the therapeutic cycle.